Academic dishonesty , academic misconduct, academic fraud and academic integrity are related concepts that refer to various actions on the part of students that go against the expected norms of a school, university or other learning institution. Definitions of academic misconduct are usually outlined in institutional policies. Throughout history this type of dishonesty has been met with varying degrees of penalties. Academic dishonesty dates back to the first tests. Standards for citation and referencing began at the end of the 19th century with the emergence of guidance provided by scholarly societies that developed discipline-specific expectations for referencing such as the MLA and the APA. It has been estimated that as many as two-thirds of students cheated at some point of their college careers at the turn of the 20th century.
DISSERTATION PROPOSAL: IMPACT OF ICT ON BANKING FRAUD - Term Paper | College Term Paper
In civil litigation , allegations of fraud might be based on a misrepresentation of fact that was either intentional or negligent. For a statement to be an intentional misrepresentation, the person who made it must either have known the statement was false or been reckless as to its truth. The speaker must have also intended that the person to whom the statement was made would rely on it. The hearer must then have reasonably relied on the promise and also been harmed because of that reliance.
In: Business and Management. The main focus will be on three of the many pillars that make fraud a reality fraud — committing, concealing and detecting; that is; how the fraudulent was committed, how the perpetrator concealed it and how it was detected by the relevant authorities. Focusing on these three areas gives us the opportunity to take an in-depth look into the loopholes that are making it easy for perpetrators of fraud to be able to commit and conceal fraud and how their actions were detected.