Bergson sought to improve upon inadequacies he perceived in the philosophy of Herbert Spencer , due, he believed, to Spencer's lack of comprehension of mechanics , which led Bergson to the conclusion that time eluded mathematics and science. For the individual, time may speed up or slow down, whereas, for science, it would remain the same. Hence Bergson decided to explore the inner life of man, which is a kind of duration, neither a unity nor a quantitative multiplicity. It can only be grasped through a simple intuition of the imagination. It is used as a defense of free will in a response to Immanuel Kant , who believed free will was only possible outside time and space.
Idealism is the theory that ideas and thoughts make up the actual fundamental reality of the world. In an overview, it is any philosophy that argues that the only things that are knowable lies in consciousness. This also states that we can never truly tell if anything in the outside world really exists. Things that are real are only mental, nothing physical if proven to be real.
Can't find it here? His philosophies, as outlined in Perpetual Peace, paved the way for modern political relations. Unbeknownst to his day and age, his insights were a revelation. They were seeds planted and left unsewn for years. As a first and second image theorist, Kant mixes his liberal and realist views to paint a picture of "perpetual peace.
Philosophy of space and time is the branch of philosophy concerned with the issues surrounding the ontology , epistemology , and character of space and time. While such ideas have been central to philosophy from its inception, the philosophy of space and time was both an inspiration for and a central aspect of early analytic philosophy. The subject focuses on a number of basic issues, including whether time and space exist independently of the mind, whether they exist independently of one another, what accounts for time's apparently unidirectional flow, whether times other than the present moment exist, and questions about the nature of identity particularly the nature of identity over time.