The Transcendental Meditation technique or abbreviated as TM is the technique associated with the practice of Transcendental Meditation developed by Indian spiritual figure Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. The meditation practice involves the use of a private mantra and is practised for 20 minutes twice per day while sitting comfortably with one's eyes closed. Advocates of TM claim that the technique promotes a state of relaxed awareness, stress-relief, creativity, and efficiency, as well as physiological benefits such as reducing the risk of heart disease and high blood pressure. The methodological quality of scientific research on the therapeutic benefits of meditation in general is poor due to the varying theoretical approaches and frequent confirmation bias involved in individual studies. The technique is recommended for 20 minutes twice per day. TM teachers caution their students not to be alarmed by random thoughts and to "attend" to the mantra.
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The Joker is a fictional character who appears in Christopher Nolan 's superhero film The Dark Knight , based upon the DC Comics character and supervillain of the same name. He was portrayed by Australian actor Heath Ledger. A psychopathic criminal mastermind and mass murderer with a warped, sadistic sense of humor, the Joker is hired by Gotham City 's mob bosses to kill the vigilante Batman Christian Bale , and also comes into conflict with Batman's allies, Gotham police officer James Gordon Gary Oldman and district attorney Harvey Dent Aaron Eckhart. The Joker embodies themes of chaos, anarchy and obsession: throughout the film, he expresses a desire to upset the social order in Gotham through crime, and defines himself by his conflict with Batman. In the film, he wears the character's traditional purple and green color palette, while his facial appearance includes clown makeup that covers facial scars of a Glasgow smile , and green hair. Ledger's Joker also explores techniques found in the actor's previous performances, including his clown act in Terry Gilliam 's fantasy film The Brothers Grimm , while also referencing paintings by artist Francis Bacon , Anthony Burgess ' novel A Clockwork Orange , and various punk rock musicians, as well as a vocal style rumoured to be influenced by Tom Waits.