The scheme above shows the first published Suzuki Coupling, which is the palladium-catalysed cross coupling between organoboronic acid and halides. Recent catalyst and methods developments have broadened the possible applications enormously, so that the scope of the reaction partners is not restricted to aryls, but includes alkyls, alkenyls and alkynyls. Potassium trifluoroborates and organoboranes or boronate esters may be used in place of boronic acids. Some pseudohalides for example triflates may also be used as coupling partners. One difference between the Suzuki mechanism and that of the Stille Coupling is that the boronic acid must be activated, for example with base. This activation of the boron atom enhances the polarisation of the organic ligand, and facilitates transmetallation.
The Suzuki reaction is an organic reaction , classified as a cross-coupling reaction , where the coupling partners are a boronic acid and an organohalide and the catalyst is a palladium 0 complex. Heck and Ei-ichi Negishi for their contribution to the discovery and development of palladium-catalyzed cross-couplings in organic synthesis. It is widely used to synthesize poly olefins , styrenes , and substituted biphenyls. Several reviews have been published describing advancements and the development of the Suzuki reaction. The mechanism of the Suzuki reaction is best viewed from the perspective of the palladium catalyst 1. The first step is the oxidative addition of palladium to the halide 2 to form the organopalladium species 3. Reaction metathesis with base gives intermediate 4 , which via transmetalation  with the boron- ate complex 6 produced by reaction of the boronic acid 5 with base forms the organopalladium species 8.
In: Science. Student Student Number: Version 2. The sections that should be covered are outlined and a structure you could follow is proposed.
Abstract A simple, mild, highly efficient and transition metal-free protocol for synthesis of ynones in an ionic liquid is described. In this approach, the coupling reaction of different acid chlorides with terminal alkynes was efficiently carried out using 0. This method is highly efficient for various acid chlorides and alkynes including aliphatic, aromatic, and heteroaromatic substrates bearing different functional groups. The influence of some parameters in this reaction including type of ionic liquid, base and catalyst has been discussed.