The demarcation between science and pseudoscience is part of the larger task of determining which beliefs are epistemically warranted. This entry clarifies the specific nature of pseudoscience in relation to other categories of non-scientific doctrines and practices, including science denial ism and resistance to the facts. The major proposed demarcation criteria for pseudo-science are discussed and some of their weaknesses are pointed out. In conclusion, it is emphasized that there is much more agreement on particular cases of demarcation than on the general criteria that such judgments should be based upon. This is an indication that there is still much important philosophical work to be done on the demarcation between science and pseudoscience. Demarcations of science from pseudoscience can be made for both theoretical and practical reasons Mahner ,
Science and Pseudo-Science
Difference Between Functionalism and Marxism | Difference Between
Sociology is the study of society , human social behaviour , patterns of social relationships, social interaction , and culture that surrounds everyday life. While some sociologists conduct research that may be applied directly to social policy and welfare , others focus primarily on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter can range from micro -level analyses of society i. Traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification , social class , social mobility , religion , secularization , law , sexuality , gender , and deviance.
Difference Between Functionalism and Marxism
A gift economy or gift culture is a mode of exchange where valuables are not sold, but rather given without an explicit agreement for immediate or future rewards. The nature of gift economies is the subject of a foundational debate in anthropology. Malinowski's debate with the French anthropologist Marcel Mauss quickly established the complexity of "gift exchange" and introduced a series of technical terms such as reciprocity , inalienable possessions , and presentation to distinguish between the different forms of exchange. According to anthropologists Maurice Bloch and Jonathan Parry, it is the unsettled relationship between market and non-market exchange that attracts the most attention. Some authors argue that gift economies build community,  while markets harm community relationships.
Political philosophy is the philosophical study of government , addressing questions about the nature, scope, and legitimacy of public agents and institutions and the relationships between them. Its topics include politics , liberty , justice , property , rights , law , and the enforcement of laws by authority : what they are, if they are needed, what makes a government legitimate , what rights and freedoms it should protect, what form it should take, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever. Political theory also engages questions of a broader scope, tackling the political nature of phenomena and categories such as identity , culture , sexuality , race , wealth , human-nonhuman relations , ecology , religion , and more. Political philosophy is a branch of philosophy ,  but it has also been a major part of political science , within which a strong focus has historically been placed on both the history of political thought and contemporary political theory from normative political theory to various critical approaches.