Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics , [h] in practice its government and economy were highly centralized until its final years. Its five biomes were tundra , taiga , steppes , desert , and mountains. Its diverse population was officially known as the Soviet people. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of when the Bolsheviks , headed by Vladimir Lenin , overthrew the Provisional Government that had earlier replaced the monarchy of the Russian Empire. They established the Russian Soviet Republic , [i] beginning a civil war between the Bolshevik Red Army and many anti-Bolshevik forces across the former Empire, among whom the largest faction was the White Guard , which engaged in violent anti-communist repression against the Bolsheviks and their worker and peasant supporters known as the White Terror. The Red Army expanded and helped local Bolsheviks take power, establishing soviets , repressing their political opponents and rebellious peasants through Red Terror.
The Russian Revolution. What happened? Why was it important?, Term Paper Sample
Part of a series on the History of the Cold War. Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but the period is generally considered to span the Truman Doctrine 12 March to the Dissolution of the Soviet Union 26 December  The term " cold " is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two superpowers , but they each supported major regional conflicts known as proxy wars. The conflict was based around the ideological and geopolitical struggle for global influence by the two powers, following their temporary alliance and victory against Nazi Germany in Aside from the nuclear arsenal development and conventional military deployment, the struggle for dominance was expressed via indirect means such as psychological warfare , propaganda campaigns, espionage , far-reaching embargoes , rivalry at sports events and technological competitions such as the Space Race. The West was led by the United States as well as the other First World nations of the Western Bloc that were generally liberal democratic but tied to a network of authoritarian states, most of which were their former colonies. The US government supported right-wing governments and uprisings across the world, while the Soviet government funded communist parties and revolutions around the world. As nearly all the colonial states achieved independence in the period — , they became Third World battlefields in the Cold War.
Forces in power:. Revolutionary forces:. That resulted in a power struggle among competing elites, which provided the opportunity for agrarian insurrection. The elections took place in October in a free and fair vote.
The provisional government lasted approximately eight months, and ceased to exist when the Bolsheviks gained power after the October Revolution in October [November, N. According to Harold Whitmore Williams the history of eight months during which Russia was ruled by the Provisional Government was the history of the steady and systematic disorganization of the army. For most of the life of the Provisional Government, the status of the monarchy was unresolved.