The federalisation of the European Union describes processes and proposals by which the European Union EU could be transformed from an informal confederation a union of sovereign states into a federation a single federal state with a central government, consisting of a number of partially self-governing federated states. There is ongoing discussion about the extent to which the EU has already become a federation over the course of decades, and more importantly, to what degree it should continue to evolve into a federalist direction. As of December [update] , the EU has no formal plans to become a federation. Since the s, European integration has seen the development of a supranational system of governance, as its institutions move further from the concept of simple intergovernmentalism and more towards a federalised system. However, with the Maastricht Treaty of , new intergovernmental elements have been introduced alongside the more federal systems, making it more difficult to define the European Union the EU. The European Union, which operates through a hybrid system of intergovernmentalism and supranationalism , is not officially a federation or even a confederation — though various academic observers regard it as having the characteristics of a federal system.
European Union to impose sanctions on Turkey by end of year - North press agency
Withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union. The referendum resulted in Although the referendum was legally non-binding, the government of the time promised to implement the result. After May failed to secure the backing of Parliament on her Brexit deal, she resigned as Prime Minister, and was succeeded by Boris Johnson. Johnson then extended the negotiation period again until 31 January.
A List Of Great Dissertation Topics On The European Union
Nowadays, the higher education area has an increasing tendency to internationalize. With the increasing number of international students in the world, national and international strategies gain importance and internationalization is inevitable in higher education. According to the OECD , in , 4. This figure is expected to increase to 8 million in
American political scientist Francis Fukuyama published a controversial article in Designating a paradigmatic change in world history , Fukuyama propounded the triumph of the Western democratic and capitalist societies. According to Fukuyama, this was not merely the end of the Cold War but the end of history as such. Even though historical events would certainly keep occurring, Fukuyama believed that the main historical conflict was resolved by the end of the Cold War and that the ideological evolution of humanity had been completed. During the Cold War, the bipolar balance of power created a system of checks and balances in the international system where countries at least sought to legitimize their actions.