Nineteen Eighty-Four: A Novel , often referred to as , is a dystopian social science fiction novel by English novelist George Orwell. Thematically, Nineteen Eighty-Four centres on the consequences of totalitarianism , mass surveillance , and repressive regimentation of persons and behaviours within society. The story takes place in an imagined future, the year , when much of the world has fallen victim to perpetual war , omnipresent government surveillance , historical negationism , and propaganda. Great Britain, known as Airstrip One, has become a province of a totalitarian superstate named Oceania that is ruled by the Party who employ the Thought Police to persecute individuality and independent thinking. The protagonist, Winston Smith , is a diligent and skillful rank-and-file worker and Outer Party member who secretly hates the Party and dreams of rebellion.
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Childhood is generally considered to be either a natural biological stage of development or a modern idea or invention. Theories of childhood are concerned with what a child is, the nature of childhood, the purpose or function of childhood, and how the notion of the child or childhood is used in society. The concept of childhood, like any invention, was forged from a potent relationship between ideas and technologies within a frame of social, political, and economic needs. Theories of childhood as a concept are often highly colored or emotive, that is to say, they deal with stark contrasts revealing the development over time of the psychological or emotional significance of childhood as viewed from the state of adulthood. Up until the s, theories of childhood tended to be determined in a "top-down" approach which some have described as "imperialistic. Children themselves, while the focus of theory, have not generally been considered as having a legitimate voice in influencing its production.
Childhood as a Social Construction
Natural Man and Civil Society However, immediately following the passage from Emile quoted above, Jean-Jacques indicates that he is no mere idealist; he realizes that the child born into a highly structured society like those of mid-eighteenth-century Europe cannot remain in the state of nature. Rather than downplay this problem, Jean-Jacques readily admits that his scheme cannot succeed. Thus, Rousseau acknowledges from the start that he is pursuing an impossible goal. This admission alerts his audience to the fact that he intends Emile to be read not as a practical guide to raising children, but as a philosophical exploration of an intractable problem. Nevertheless, Emile has often been mis interpreted as a childcare manual or a pragmatic treatise on education.
The social construction of gender is a theory in feminism and sociology about the manifestation of cultural origins, mechanisms, and corollaries of gender perception and expression in the context of interpersonal and group social interaction. Specifically, the social construction of gender stipulates that gender roles are an achieved "status" in a social environment, which implicitly and explicitly categorize people and therefore motivate social behaviors. A related matter in feminist theory is the relationship between the ascribed status of assigned sex male or female and their achieved status counterparts in gender masculine and feminine.